Knowledge Base

Crushed Glass Sorting Process

Description: PDF with photos of the glass sorting process.

By: A/Prof Arul Arulrajah, Swinburne University

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Crushed Rock for Light Duty Base and Subbase Pavement

Description: This section covers the requirements of crushed rock and plant mixed wet-mix crushed rock for 20 mm nominal size Class 3 base, and for Class 4 crushed rock subbase for light duty pavements. The material class, pavement course use and nominal sizes shall be as specified in the special clauses and/or the drawings and/or the schedule. Crushed rock products shall be supplied only from a VicRoads accredited source. Products shall be supplied as Plant Mixed Wet Mixed Crushed Rock (PMWMCR) if specified in Clause 813.05(c). Source rock types from which crushed rock base and subbase can be produced are specified in Section 801 – Source Rock for the Production of Crushed Rock and Aggregates. Requirements for crushed concrete are covered in Section 820 – Crushed Concrete for Pavement Subbase. Construction requirements for unbound flexible pavements incorporating crushed rock are covered in Section 304 – Construction of Unbound Flexible Pavements.

By: Vicroads

Date: March_2011

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Engineering Properties of Recycled Materials and LG Footpath Specifications

Description: Presentation covering background, definitions testing methodology and specifications

By: Graeme Newman, Vicroads & A/Prof A. Arulrajah, Swinburne University

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Future Travels Down a Glass Highway

Descriptions: Australian have become great recyclers of glass, even though not all glass is actually reusable. However, a purpose may just have been found for the growing stockpile of waste glass in many cities and towns. Research at Swinburne University of Technology’s Centre for Sustainable Infrastructure is looking at ways to make this glass suitable for use in road construction. In Victoria alone, about 250,000 tonnes of non-recyclable glass ends up in landfill, so it represents a sizeable resource to supplement materials used in roads and footpaths. Recycled glass is already used in road construction in Europe and the US, but each region needs to set its own standards according to local conditions, materials and climateA

By: Karin Derkley

Date: July 2010

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Geotechnical Characteristics of Recycled Asphalt

Description: This project is a collaboration between the Swinburne University of Technology, the Municipal Association of Victoria and Sustainability Victoria. Asphalt is generally removed from roadways on a regular basis, leading to excess stockpiles of spent asphalt. This material will end up in landfills without a sustainable method to reutilise it. Reclaimed asphalt pavement is the name given to asphalt that has been recycled. Currently 226,000 tonnes of waste asphalt is stockpiled annually in the state of Victoria, Australia (Sustainability-Victoria 2010).

By: A/Prof A. Arulrajah & J. Piratheepan, Swinburne University

Date: April 2011

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Guidance Matrix for Road Construction Materials

Description: The last decade has seen a significant expansion in the availability and quality of recycled materials for use in road building. As pavement materials predominantly consist of crushed rock and aggregate there is significant opportunity to utilise alternative materials incorporating recycled products. This Technical Note is intended to provide guidance in the use of recycled material in pavement works as an equivalent alternative to conventional materials produced directly from quarried sources.

By: Vicroads

Date: February 2011

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Laboratory Testing of Reclaimed Demolition Materials for Footpaths

Description: This project is a collaboration between the Swinburne University of Technology and local state government councils. Demolition waste materials arise from demolition activities. Currently in Victoria, 1.4 million tonnes of crushed brick and 200,000 tonnes of crushed glass are stockpiled annually and these stockpiles are growing. Swinburne University has been actively undertaking research in the use of various recycled demolition materials as pavement sub-base and in other geotechnical applications. A recently completed research project by Swinburne University with demolition materials enabled VicRoads to allow new and rehabilitated roads to be made up of up to 15 per cent crushed brick (a significant increase on the current standards that only allows 3 per cent).

By: Swinburne University

Date: December 2009

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Launch Event Presentation

Description: Pack of presentations including:

  • BaysideRoads to Zero Waste presentation.ppt
  • City of Port Phillip.ppt
  • Fraser20110615 – Zero Waste Sustainability Challenge.pptx
  • Main Document – Launch of Recycled Roads to Zero Waste.ppt
  • Packaging Stewardship Forum.pdf
  • Recycling – John H.ppt
  • Surf Coast Council.ppt

Date: Wednesday June 15, 2011

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Life Cycle Assessment of the Use of Solid Waste Materials in Highway Construction

Description: Sustainable consumption and production, leading to increased resource efficiency, is now high on the political agenda. Recycling and reuse of materials is now far more commonplace, not least in resource intensive activities such as the construction of infrastructure including highways. A vast range of secondary and recycled materials now commonly replace virgin aggregates; including both those which originate from deconstructed highways and other demolition projects, to those which arise in other waste streams quite unrelated to highways. The range of materials incorporated includes recycled asphalt planings, recycled concrete, ashes, slags, foundry sand, glass, plastic and rubber. Feasibility studies concerning the potential for the use of these materials are plentiful and some studies exist which have considered the environmental credentials of such practices. There are still opportunities available to improve the sustainability of such systems, especially where there are several different options available for recycling a given waste material. This particular study summarises work conducted to date and investigates the environmental performance of recycling systems which use glass to replace aggregate in bitumen bound surface layers, comparing it to other recycling options for glass including closed-loop recycling to new containers.

By: M Wayman, B Cordell & E Houghton

Date: July 2009

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Low Carbon Footpaths with Recycled Materials and Geopolymer Concrete

Description: This project will be collaboration between the Swinburne University and the Municipal Association of Victoria. This project will involve a new concept for Low Carbon footpaths with recycled materials in the base in combination with geopolymer concrete for the surfacing. The proposed research will be the first of its kind in the world in attempting to construct footpaths from recycle materials with low carbon emissions. Footpaths and pavements consume very large amount of virgin construction materials, hence this pilot study, if successful, will have significant national benefit in paving the way for new type of footpaths with low carbon emissions.

By: A/Prof Arul Arulrajah & Prof, Jay Sanjayan, Swinburne University

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Recycled Sand MSDS

Description: Material Safety Data Sheet for Alex Fraser Recycled Sand

By: Alex Fraser Recycling

Date: August 2010

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Packaging Stewardship Forum – Recycled Crushed Glass as Base Aggregate in Shared Pathways – Summary Report

Description: The reuse of glass, while still largely limited to container glass, has gained momentum over the past decade, and is now being widely accepted across many industries, including engineering, architecture, and industrial processes. Recent research has been undertaken by industry and university bodies into the use of recycled crushed glass (RCG) in civil construction applications. This report summarises the information available to date regarding incorporation of RCG in the construction of the base course layer for footpaths and shared pathways.

Date: February 2011

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Life cycle comparison of crushed concrete aggregate with traditionally quarried stone aggregate

Description: The aim of this project was to compare the potential environmental impacts of crushed concrete aggregate and quarried stone aggregate in road base applications, with a particular emphasis placed upon greenhouse gas emissions, solid waste and water use, as there is a high degree of awareness of these impacts in the building industry. The study considers a high volume crushed concrete aggregate product produced by Alex Fraser at their Laverton North concrete recycling plant which is compared directly to the equivalent traditional quarried stone product.

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Crushed Brick as a Supplementary Material in Cement Treated Crushed Concrete Pavement Applications

Description: Traditional pavement base and sub-base materials is becoming scarce in some regions. In some cases, the use of these materials is unsustainable from both an environmental and cost perspective. VicRoads manages a road network of 151,000 kilometres, from major freeways to minor local roads. Approximately 50,000 kilometres of this road network is located in metropolitan Melbourne and requires cement treatment of pavement bases/sub-bases, there are also similar requirements for municipal roads, which frequently use similar pavement compositions on local roads. Traditionally, only cement treated crushed rock and crushed concrete have been used in cement treated pavement bases/sub-bases. There is presently a state government sustainability initiative to use recycled materials where appropriate and where they are fit for purpose, particularly in roads and other infrastructures.

Swinburne Investigators: Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi Miri Disfani, Hamed Haghighi

Partner Organisations: Sustainability Victoria, VicRoads

31 August 2013

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VicRoads list of accredited recycled product suppliers

Description: A list of VicRoads accredited recycled product suppliers is available in the [VicRoads Code of Practice: Management of Quarry Reference Specimens (RC 500.03)]

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Sustainability Victoria’s recently released factsheets about markets for recycled glass and recycled brick, stone and concrete

Description: In 2013–14 Sustainability Victoria commissioned market analysis into four waste materials identified as priorities for market development and four which are emerging materials of interest. This fact sheet summarises the findings for recycled glass.

Download PDF Fact Sheet 1

Download PDF Fact Sheet 2